After this lesson, you will be able to make your sentences a little more exciting with the use of adjectives and adverbs.
These are words that are able to modify a noun. For example, “big”, “happy”, and “warm”.
In Esperanto, all of these words end with “-a”.
To use an adjective with a noun, we simply need to place it near the noun that we want to modify. It can go on either side of the noun:
a happy cat
And you can have as many as you’d like.
a big, happy cat
This is so that Esperanto can be more flexible, such that no matter your native language you can mimic the patterns that you already know.
If the noun that’s being modified happens to be plural, or the object of the sentence, then the adjective must take on the same endings as the noun.
|Singular Noun||Plural Noun||Objective Noun||Plural Objective Noun|
This is important, because when sentence structure is as flexible as a yoga instructor, we still need to know where the hands and legs connect; without matching endings, the adjective could describe any noun in the sentence.
|La bela kato granda hundojn havas
||The big, beautiful cat has dogs|
|La bela kato grandajn hundojn havas
||The beautiful cat has big dogs|
A slight "gotcha" with adjectives matching the noun that they describe, is that this must hold true even when separated by the verb "esti". This is because adjectives used with "esti" are describing the subject noun.
|Ili estas feliĉaj
||They are happy|
|Ni estas bonaj
||We are good|
Now, if you still have your sentences from Lesson 4, let’s spice them up! Take the time to add adjectives to the nouns in those sentences. If you don’t have them, no worries! Try creating 3 new sentences with words that you know, and make sure that every noun has an adjective.
These are words that are able to modify verbs, adjectives, or even other adverbs. For example, “quickly”, “happily”, and “well”.
In Esperanto, all of these words end with “-e”.
Let’s hit our adjectives and verbs with the spice weasel: BAM!
|The moon is truly beautiful||La luno estas vere bela
|I have to quickly read the book||Mi devas rapide legi la libron
|I happily drink water||Mi feliĉe trinkas akvon
|The water is not completely warm||La akvo ne estas tute varma
|You know me well||Vi bone konas min
Can you taste the difference between the spicy adjectives, and the zesty verbs? Try to differentiate them in the examples above.
We can now spice up our sentences using adjectives and adverbs. Be sure to practice using these, as they are vital to creating interesting and emotionally charged sentences. When you feel confident with them, and have studied the vocabulary, then attempt to complete the quiz.
We’ll see you next time for one of the most fun topics in Esperanto. We can’t wait.