Esperanto is a very flexible language. It works on a system of radicals and affixes.
Radicals serve as the base root meaning of a word. Sometimes words will consist of more than one radical, placed side-by-side.
Affixes are pieces that can be attached to a radical to alter its meaning in various ways. Affixes consist of two types - prefixes and suffixes. A prefix goes before the radical, and a suffix is placed after the radical.
Most of the time, affixes can serve as radicals on their own as well.
Here are some affixes that are easy to use:
|-o||Makes the radical into a noun that represents the object|
|-et-||Makes the radical a smaller scale, or a less drastic version of itself|
|-eg-||Makes the radical a larger scale, or more drastic version of itself|
|-id-||The offspring of the radical|
Using these affixes, let’s play around with the word “domo” and “kato”.
||a small cat|
||a large cat|
||a kitten (the offspring of a cat)|
Now, we could say “domido”, which means “offspring of a house”...? Which is kind of nonsensical, but if said, Esperantists would immediately understand the meaning of the word itself, and may be perfectly valid in a certain context. In this way, one can start to see the flexibility that the language has to offer. It’s kind of like Legos!
Let’s get some prefix blocks that we can play with:
|ek-||Usually attached to a radical representing an action (verb).
It conveys the notion of starting to perform that verb.
|mal-||Makes the radical mean the opposite|
Now let's play with them:
||to start to learn|
|varm||mal-, -eg-, -a||malvarmega
“Mal-” is a very common prefix. Often Esperanto will use one radical, as in “bel” and “varm” above, and use “mal-” to represent the opposite of that radical. This simplifies the language as learners do not have to learn two totally different words for these related concepts - “hot and cold”, “big and small”, “beautiful and ugly”, etc.
Using words that you’re familiar with, and these new affixes that we’re learning, try to come up with 10 of your own words. We’ll give you some more examples below.
For a full list of affixes, visit this page.
||a big book|
||to start searching|
It can be quite fun to see what ridiculous, semantically correct words you can create using these rules.
There is an interesting suffix, and it kind of just means “thing”. If made into a noun using the “-o” suffix, we get “aĵo” which would literally translate into “a thing”. This suffix can be used to turn radicals that don’t directly express an object into such. It can be thought of as “the thing that you _____” or “the thing that ______s”. Here are some examples of how it’s useful.
||a spade, a shovel|
||an eating utensil|
This lesson’s vocabulary attempts to use affixes ontop of words that you’ve previously learned to create new ones. We will walk you through certain affixes as we go. We won’t always point out when affixes are used in a word. We’ll let you discover and link these relationships together on your own, since the realization is quite enjoyable when it happens.
This is probably one of the most fun parts of Esperanto; be sure to play around with and enjoy it, as this is also one of the most important concepts of the language.
As always, complete the quiz when you feel confident with the concept, and we’ll see you in the next lesson.
|mommy, mom, mum|
|The mansion was tall||La domo est alta|
|He is starting to look for food||serĉ manĝon|
|Inexperienced people do not discover new things||lertaj homoj ne as novajn aĵojn|
|She ate the eating utensils||Ŝi manĝ manĝjn|
|Beautiful people can't fly||j homoj ne pov flugi|
|Shovels can't dig very cold ground||oj ne fosi varman grundon|
|The bulls started to see the calfs||La bovoj la bovojn|