Languages > Esperanto > Affixes

Affixes

Suffixes / Sufiksoj

Suffix Meaning Esperanto Translation
-aĉ Contemptible, substandard, lacking in quality domaĉo shack
-ad Continuous, repeated, or frequent action marŝadi
parolado
to keep walking
speech
-aĵ substance, physical manifestation, or product manĝaĵo food
-an member, participant, inhabitant kanadano
ŝipano
a Canadian
a ship crew member
-ar Collection of manĝilaro
Arbaro
silverware
Forest
-ĉj Masculine affectionate suffix (may require root truncation) paĉjo dad (from father)
-ebl Possible, or believable kredebla
travidebla
believable
transparent
-ec Abstract quality (English -ness) varmeco warmth, heat
-eg Of great size or degree domego mansion
-ej The place that the root occurs or is located lernejo
kuirejo
school
kitchen
-em Tendency towards ludema
parolema
playful
talkative
-end Mandatory legendaĵo
pagenda
required reading
due, payable
-er Smallest individual unit neĝero
ĉenero
snowflake
chain link
-estr Leadership urbestro mayor
-et Of small size or degree libreto
boleti
booklet (from book)
simmer (from boil)
-id Offspring, young (animal) katido
arbido
reĝido
kitten (from cat)
sappling (from tree)
prince (from king)
-ig To make/cause something to be mortigi
igi
to kill
to cause to become
-iĝ To become mortiĝi
iĝi
to die
to become
-il Tool, instrument manĝilo
ludilo
eating utensil
toy
-in Feminine virino
patrino
bovino
woman
mother
cow
-ind worth, worthy of kredinda
fidinda
memorinda
credible
trustworthy
memorable
-ing holder, sheath glavingo
kandelingo
scabbard (from sword)
candle holder (from candle)
-ism A professional, adept, frequent performer of an activity (English “-ist”) instruisto
komunisto
pianisto
teacher (from teach)
communist (from common)
pianist (from piano)
-nj Feminine affectionate suffix (may require root truncation) panjo mom, mum (from mother)
-obl Multiplication, times, or a multiple of the root number duobla
oble
double
multiplied by
-on A fraction of the root number duono
kvarono
a half (½)
a quarter (¼)
-op A collection of the root number duopo
triopo
couple
trio, triad
-uj A container, country, or tree of a specific fruit monujo
abelujo
pomujo
wallet, purse (from money)
beehive (from bee)
appletree (from apple)
-ul Person characterized by the root word junulo
sanktulo
mamulo
a youth (from young)
a saint (from holy)
a mammal (from breast)
-um Indefinite, undefined suffix. It adds the feeling of “something to do with” to the root (sparingly used) plenumi
proksimume
komunumo
to fill (from full)
approximately (from near)
community (from common)

Prefixes / Prefiksoj

Prefix Meaning Esperanto Translation
bo- in-law, related by marriage bopatro
bopatrino
father in-law
mother in-law
dis- Separated, scattered disdoni to distribute
ek- Beginning, sudden, or momentary action ekdormi
ekbruli
to fall asleep
to catch fire
eks- Former (English ex-) eksedzo
eksprezidanto
eksiĝi
ex-husband
former president
to resign, to leave office
fi- Terrible, awful, nasty, shameful, filthy, disgusting fivorto a profane word
ge- Of both sexes gefrato
gepatro
geonklo
sibling
parent
aunt or uncle
mal- Opposite meaning of the root malvarma
malkovri
cold (from hot)
to uncover, to discover (from cover)
mis- Wrongly, incorrectly (English mis-) miskompreni
misakuzi
mise
misunderstand (from understand)
to wrongly accuse
incorrectly
pra- Ancient praavo
prapatro
prahistoria
great-grandfather
forefather
prehistoric
re- Again (English re-) reiri
resendi
refoje
to go back
to resend
once again