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Cheatsheet

Nouns

A noun will always end with the suffix "-o".

A plural noun will have an additional suffix "-j".

The object of a sentence will have an additional suffix "-n".

Singular Plural Singular Object Plural Object
kato katoj katon katojn

Verbs

The infinitive (unconjugated) verb form always ends with the suffix "-i".

A sentence can be negated by placing the word "ne" before the verb of the sentence.

Ending Category Description Example Translation
-i Infinitive The unconjugated form of a verb. It expresses neither time nor mood, and can be used in conjunction with other verbs Mi forgesis spiri momente I forgot to breathe for a moment
-is Past Expresses that something happened, or was true in the past Ŝi diris tion al mi She said that to me
-as Present Expresses a general fact, or an action that is occurring right now Ni estas amikoj We are friends
-os Future Expresses that something will happen, or will be true in the future Ĉu vi trinkos akvon aŭ bieron Will you drink water or beer?
-us Conditional Expresses that something would, should, or could happen or be true given a condition Mi esperas ke vi sciigus min I hope that you would notify me
-u Imperative (Jussive) Expresses desire for something to happen or be true Ne manĝu tion! Don't eat that!

Adjectives

An adjective will always end with the suffix "-a".

An adjective will always share the suffix of the noun it describes.

Singular Plural Singular Object Plural Object
bela kato belaj katoj belan katon belajn katojn

Adverbs

An adverb will always end with the suffix "-e".

Adverbs can modify both adjectives and verbs.

Prepositions

Have no consistent ending suffix.

Are always followed by a noun phrase (noun, adjective + noun, adverb + adjective + noun)

The noun phrase should never take the accusative case (never use '-n') except for when motion is shown (into, onto)

Conjunctions

Conjunctions combine two similar parts of speech (two noun phrases, two sentences)

Suffixes

Suffix Meaning Esperanto Translation
-aĉ Contemptible, substandard, lacking in quality domaĉo shack
-ad Continuous, repeated, or frequent action marŝadi
parolado
to keep walking
speech
-aĵ substance, physical manifestation, or product manĝaĵo food
-an member, participant, inhabitant kanadano
ŝipano
A Canadian
A ship crew member
-ar Collection of Manĝilaro
Arbaro
Silverware
Forest
-ĉj Masculine affectionate suffix (may require root truncation) Paĉjo Dad (from father)
-ebl Possible, or believable kredebla
travidebla
believable
transparent
-ec Abstract quality (English -ness) varmeco warmth, heat
-eg Of great size or degree domego mansion
-ej The place that the root occurs or is located lernejo
kuirejo
school
kitchen
-em Tendency towards Ludema
parolema
Playful
talkative
-end Mandatory Legendaĵo
pagenda
Required reading
due, payable
-er Smallest individual unit Neĝero
ĉenero
Snowflake
Chain link
-estr Leadership urbestro mayor
-et Of small size or degree Libreto
boleti
booklet (from book)
simmer (from boil)
-id Offspring, young (animal) katido
arbido
reĝido
kitten (from cat)
sappling (from tree)
prince (from king)
-ig To make/cause something to be mortigi
igi
to kill
to cause to become
-iĝ To become mortiĝi
iĝi
to die
to become
-il Tool, instrument Manĝilo
ludilo
eating utensil
toy
-in Feminine virino
patrino
bovino
woman
mother
cow
-ind worth, worthy of kredinda
fidinda
memorinda
credible
trustworthy
memorable
-ing holder, sheath glavingo
kandelingo
scabbard (from sword)
candle holder (from candle)
-ism A professional, adept, frequent performer of an activity (English “-ist”) instruisto
komunisto
pianisto
teacher (from teach)
communist (from common)
pianist (from piano)
-nj Feminine affectionate suffix (may require root truncation) panjo mom, mum (from mother)
-obl Multiplication, times, or a multiple of the root numbe duobla
oble
double
multiplied by
-on A fraction of the root number duono
kvarono
a half (½)
a quarter (¼)
-op A collection of the root number duopo
triopo
couple
trio, triad
-uj A container, country, or tree of a specific fruit monujo
abelujo
pomujo
wallet, purse (from money)
beehive (from bee)
appletree (from apple)
-ul Person characterized by the root word junulo
sanktulo
mamulo
a youth (from young)
a saint (from holy)
a mammal (from breast)
-um Indefinite, undefined suffix. It adds the feeling of “something to do with” to the root (sparingly used) plenumi
proksimume
komunumo
to fill (from full)
approximately (from near)
community (from common)

Prefixes

Prefix Meaning Esperanto Translation
bo- in-law, related by marriage bopatro
bopatrino
father in-law
mother in-law
dis- separated, scattered disdoni to distribute
ek- Beginning, sudden, or momentary action ekdormi
ekbruli
to fall asleep
to catch fire
eks- Former (English ex-) eksedzo
eksprezidanto
eksiĝi
ex-husband
former president
To resign, to leave office
fi- Terrible, awful, nasty, shameful, filthy, disgusting fivorto a profane word
ge- Of both sexes gefrato
gepatro
geonklo
sibling
parent
aunt or uncle
mal- Opposite meaning of the root malvarma
malkovri
cold (from hot)
to uncover, to discover (from cover)
mis- Wrongly, incorrectly (English mis-) miskompreni
misakuzi
mise
misunderstand (from understand)
to wrongly accuse
incorrectly
pra- Ancient Praavo
prapatro
prahistoria
great-grandfather
forefather
prehistoric
re- Again (English re-) reiri
resendi
refoje
to go back
to resend
once again