Languages > Esperanto > Verb Endings

Verb Endings

Simple Tenses

Ending Category Description Example Translation
-i Infinitive The unconjugated form of a verb. It expresses neither time nor mood, and can be used in conjunction with other verbs Mi forgesis spiri momente I forgot to breathe for a moment
-is Past Expresses that something happened, or was true in the past Ŝi diris tion al mi She said that to me
-as Present Expresses a general fact, or an action that is occurring right now Ni estas amikoj We are friends
-os Future Expresses that something will happen, or will be true in the future Ĉu vi trinkos akvon aŭ bieron Will you drink water or beer?
-us Conditional Expresses that something would, should, or could happen or be true given a condition Mi esperas ke vi sciigus min I hope that you would notify me
-u Imperative (Jussive) Expresses desire for something to happen or be true Ne manĝu tion! Don't eat that!

Participles

Participle End Result Example Translation Verb
Active Participles

(itself doing)
Past

-int-
-a -inta Li eble estus ne manĝinta dum tagoj He might not have eaten for days manĝi
-o -into Sekretojn plej bone konservas mortinto Dead men keep secrets best morti
-e -inte Mi pentas farinte ion tian I regret having done such a thing fari
Present

-ant-
-a -anta La viro kuranta estas la ŝtelisto The man who is running is the thief kuri
-o -anto La ĉefa rolanto mortas fine de la libro The main character dies at the end of the book roli
-e -ante Li savis ŝin pagante per sia vivo He saved her, paying with his life pagi
Future

-ont-
-a -onta Batalontaj soldatoj nervozas Soldiers about to battle are nervous batali
-o -onto Mi preskaŭ gajnis ĝis la gajnonto trompis I thought I would win until the one who would win cheated gajni
-e -onte Ni alvenis helponte We came for the sake of helping helpi
Passive Participles

(being done to)
Past

-int-
-a -ita La planko estis makulita de sango The floor was stained with blood makuli
-o -ito La amito rompiĝis la koron de la aliulo The one who had been loved broke the other's heart ami
-e -ite La muso kuras vidite The mouse runs, having been seen vidi
Present

-ant-
-a -ata La biblioteko estas fermata dimanĉe The library is closed on Sundays fermi
-o -ato Ĉiu ludanto je karnavalo estas trompato Every player at the carnival is one who is being tricked trompi
-e -ate Mi stariĝis helpate de la policano I stood up while being helped by a police officer helpi
Future

-ont-
-a -ota La infano trovota provas trovi pli decan kaŝloko The child about to be found is trying to find a more suitable hiding spot trovi
-o -oto La doloroto forkuras por eviti ĝin The one about to be hurt runs away to avoid it dolori
-e -ote Restas vidote ĉu Tero mortiĝos pro poluado It remains to be seen whether Earth will die due to polution vidi